EntryAt its core travelling — multifunctional phenomenon. He actively affects people’s lives, the organization of their work and leisure, and consequently — the economic and social development.In this sense, tourism — a sphere of human activity associated with travel and travel of people , performs a number of functions of political, economic, cultural , which are shown as at the individual level and at the level of society as a whole .
One of the important functions of travelling — improving or recreational ((Latin) — recovery) . In the literature this function determine how reproductive, reproductive ie one that allows you to restore the strength and internal reserves person spent in the course of work, and when the current domestic duties. From a tourist point of view directly as a consumer product tour is improving function of tourism is a priority. Moreover, the health effect on differentiated treatment (known since ancient times) and preventive (characteristic of most modern forms of recreation and tourism). Tourism as a kind of recreation, an outdoor activity promotes human health, restore its health and thus — through the restoration of the workforce — improve the productivity of social labor. In the late 20 ‘s — early 30′s , some foreign companies have paid attention to the ability to improve the productivity of employees by providing them with free guided tours . Thus arose the so-called incentive tourism (incentive tourism), received a lot of popularity now. For example, one of the companies in the U.S. , spending on trips of their employees received 90 thousand dollars a return in the form of increased productivity in the amount of $ 1.5 million .
Scientific and technical progress, industrial automation contributes to the increase of free time in humans. The problem of its rational use also can be partially solved with the help of tourism. Tourism makes full use of free time a person expands his horizons, to combine leisure with knowledge of the world. It enriches the cultural rights, promotes the development of the human person and thus — raise the cultural level of society. This defines tourism as a form of social, cultural and recreational activities in the free time. But the socio-cultural function of tourism has an impact also on the social life of the country, receiving tourists.
Tourism — the active form of human communication, mutual learning that helps nations to promote mutual understanding and establish cultural and economic ties between the nations, and consequently — the development of cooperation between states, improve the international situation as a whole. International travel communication is a form of international relations; actively influence the policies of the world. Not accidentally slogan in 1967, was declared by the UN International Year of Tourism, tourism has become — the path to peace.
The political function of tourism is reflected in the fact that he got the name of public diplomacy. In addition, the company actively communicates with the world by means of tourism, is becoming more open, freely integrated into the world community. Tourist offer, is largely based on the climatic resources depends on the environmental situation in the country. Last exerts its influence on the types of tourism activities that are not directly connected with the natural environment, as for modern tourists’ environmental quality, environmental safety is the primary criterion for deciding on travel. As the industry , for which nature acts not only as a raw material for the manufacture of the product , but also of the derivative terms own existence , tourism, use of natural resources , can also serve as a means to maintain and restore through the organization of various forms of nature -informative , educational and nature- conservation tourist activity . This reflects the environment (environmental) function of tourism. Modern tourism has an impact on environmental policy. They are trying to save valuable recreational resources through special legislation, the creation of a network of national parks, natural and cultural reserves and other protected areas and objects. Tourism is increased environmental awareness of the population, improving the overall nature- protective state of the region and the country.
Some foreign experts and researchers tourism also isolated features such as holistic tourism as a means of obtaining pleasure from traveling, creating an atmosphere of celebration of everyday life (Chris District, United Kingdom) and behavioral, as the sphere of human needs (Netherlands School of Tourism) . The latter results in economic and tourism economic function in society. From the standpoint of economic and tourism economic separated into a separate branch of the economy, capable of bringing high profits, actively promote the economic development of society.
Until the XIX century travel was one of the main sources of information about these or other countries (their nature, population, history, economy), and the general character of the surface outline Zemli. Ot preserved ancient descriptions of travel time of Herodotus, the scientists who accompanied Alexander the Great in his campaigns . A classic example of medieval travel — wandering Marco Polo and Athanasius Nikitin. Travel for religious purposes (for worship shrines, holy places) in the Middle Ages was called the «pilgrimage»; pilgrims were traveling notes about his travels, called doing some. Age of Discovery is characterized by many travels to radically change the perception of the planet.
Later important to expand knowledge of the Earth were traveling D. Livingstone and G. Stanley, NM Przewalski and others. In XVIII-XIX centuries. With the deepening of research, specification and specialization of scientific goals and objectives, travel began to acquire the character of scientific expeditions.
Since the mid XX century, due to the rapid development of tourism, the term «travel» came to refer to any trip, perfect to some extent on their own, regardless of the travel company. Travelers are now calling people involved in independent , often adventurous , travel (egg , Heyerdahl , A. Sienkiewicz , I.Ganzelka , M.Zikmund , F. Grooms , VA Shanin ) .
Traveling with a principled rejection of the services of travel agency called «bespeaking »Travel health benefits.
Everyone knows that certain pleasures in moderation, such as dark chocolate or red wine may be beneficial to health. And could travel really make you healthier? American Association of Travel, which is the main lobbying group in the U.S., confidence in this, and for the sake of evidence ready to give up a few million dollars.
January 16 Group launched The Travel Effect — long-term and multi-million dollar research and marketing campaign for the study and promotion of the positive impact of travel on individual health and the health of the population and economical. Thanks to research, the industry hopes to follow in the footsteps of wine and chocolate markets that have successfully convinced consumers that gives them pleasure; some may be useful for health.
«The fact that we had long known unproven, we will now prove by authoritative studies: travels have positive effects on health, relationships, business efficiency and well-being»- says Roger Dow, president and CEO of the U.S. Travel Association. The Travel Effect will first examine the impact of travel on the relationship, and the data for this study will be published in February. Subsequent studies will examine the impact of business travel, as well as the effect of travel on the private sector, local communities and the U.S. economy.
In the coming years, the campaign will work with academic institutions and other partners such as the American Association of Retired Persons in order to conduct research on the beneficial effects of travel. During the study, The Travel Effect hopes to change the way Americans travel and encourage them to make their more. As do travel are good for health — social or economic? New website The Travel Effect suggests a few ideas:
• One-third of all tourists say that during the holidays spend much more time in sexual pleasures.• Students who have traveled abroad almost twice more likely than their domestic peers related ties University, earning 40% more than their peers.
• Employees who are periodically going to be more productive and have higher morale. They are also less prone to stress and professional burnout.
• Trips are an economic powerhouse, supporting more than 14.4 million U.S. jobs and contributing more than $ 124 billion domestic tax revenues.
As a travel affect the psychological state of the person.Travel helps people become more savvy and sexy. They also have a rejuvenating effect and increase productivity. Scientists Medical College in Houston (USA) claim that travel help people feel younger. Trips have a definite effect on the human psyche. Therefore, travel and human psychology are linked more than one could imagine.Adults feel now more «compressed» than feel his children. According to experts, traveling to unknown places — and the more exotic the better — cause in the brain processes by which adults are able to perceive the world as children do. Duration of the trip is not so important. Even one or two weeks in an unusual place help a person «rejuvenate».
Besides the fact that traveling abroad is expanding our horizons, they also make us smarter and develop creative abilities. This is due to the planning and organization of travel, to analyzing the situations that can happen to us in an unfamiliar area.
American psychologist William Mediums argues that people living abroad often reveals creativity. By the way, he said that for this reason he works in France. However, not everyone is able to develop the creative abilities.
Much depends on how you travel , if most of the time while abroad , carried out in a boring office ( on a business trip , for example) or at the hotel watching TV, then develop some outstanding abilities unlikely.
After traveling people seem sexier. Travelers returning from vacation, not only (mostly) with a beautiful tan, but also with a fascinating history. Studies show that travel is one of the main topics of conversation on a first date, along with the theme of the hobby.
FindingsThus, we found that tourism is a good cure for the disease, malaise and fatigue. Besides, it is one of the ways to self-development. The more educated a person learns so he becomes.
Одесская национальная морская академия
Кафедра «Английский язык №2»
По английскому языку
«Travelling helps putting things into perspective»
№ зачетной книжки 212574
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