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Страноведение

№3.1.1.

Формулировка ТЗ. Выберите предложение, которое отражает главную идею текста.

Moscow is the capital and the largest city of Russia. It is also the largest city in Europe, with its metropolitan area ranking among the largest urban areas in the world. Moscow is the country’s political, economic, religious, financial, educational and transportation centre. It is located on the MoskvaHYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moskva_River» River in the Central Federal District, in the European part of Russia. Historically, it was the capital of the former Soviet Union and the Grand Duchy of Moscow, the pre-Imperial Russian state. It is the site of the Moscow Kremlin, which serves as the ceremonial residence of the President of Russia. Moscow is a major economic centre and is home to the largest number of billionaires in the world; in 2007 Moscow was named the world’s most expensive city for the second year in a row. It is a home of many scientific and educational institutions, as well as numerous sport facilities. It possesses a complex transport system that includes one of the world’s busiest metro HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moscow_Metro»systems which is famous for its architecture and artwork.

Moscow, like any national capital, is also the host of all the foreign embassies and diplomats representing a multitude of nations in Russia. Moscow is designated as one of only two Federal cities of Russia (the other one being Saint Petersburg). Among the 85 Federal subjects of Russia, Moscow represents the most populated one and the smallest one in terms of area. Lastly, Moscow is located within the central economic region, one of twelve regions within Russia with similar economic goals.

The entire city of Moscow is headed by one mayor. It is divided into ten administrative okrugs and 123 districts. Nine of the ten administrative districts, except the City of Zelenograd, are located within City of Moscow main boundaries. All administrative okrugs and districts have their own coats of arms, flags, and elected head officials. Additionally, most districts have their own cable television, computer network, and official newspaper.

В — Parts of Moscow

В — Moscow’s transport

В — Great Moscow

В — Expensive Moscow

№3.1.2.

Формулировка ТЗ. Определите, какое предложение соответствует содержанию текста.

B — Moscow is situated in the northern part of Russia

B — Moscow is divided into many areas and zones

B — Moscow is a European city

B — Moscow is the country’s political, economic, religious, financial, educational and transportation centre

№3.1.3.

Формулировка ТЗ. Дополните пропущенную информацию согласно содержанию текста «All administrative okrugs and districts have their own coatsHYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coat_of_arms» HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coat_of_arms»ofHYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coat_of_arms» HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coat_of_arms»arms, flags, and ….. ». (запишите три слова)

B — elected head officials

№3.1.4.

Формулировка ТЗ. Найдите в тексте ответ на вопрос «How many administrative districts are located within City of Moscow main boundaries?» и запишите его словами. 

B — nine of the ten

№3.1.5.

Формулировка ТЗ. Используйте глагол в нужной форме в соответствии с содержанием текста

Moscow ________ (to designate) as one of only two Federal cities of Russia (the other one being Saint Petersburg).

B — is designated

№3.1.6.

Формулировка ТЗ. Постройте специальный вопрос к выделенным словам.

In 2007 Moscow was named the world’s most expensive city for the second year in a row.

When was Moscow named the world’s most expensive city for the second year in a row?

№3.1.7.

Формулировка ТЗ. Определите значение слова to head в тексте и запишите его.

B - возглавлять

№3.1.8.

Формулировка ТЗ. Определите, является ли утверждение «Moscow is a major economic centre and is home to the largest number of billionaires in the world; in 2007 Moscow was named the world’s most expensive city for the second year in a row».

B — Истинным

B — Ложным

B — В тексте нет информации

№3.2.1.

Формулировка ТЗ. Выберите название для текста

In Washington, DC, 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue is a very special address. It’s the address of the White House, the home of the President of the United States.

Originally the White House was grey and was called the Presidential Palace. It was built from 1792 to 1800. At this time, the city of Washington itself was being built. It was to be the nation’s new capital city. George Washington, the first president and Pierre Charles L’Enfant, a French engineer chose the place for the new city. L’Enfant then planned the city and the President’s home was an important part of the plan.

There was a contest to pick a design for the president’s home. An architect named James Hoban won. He designed a large three-story house of grey stone.

President Washington never lived in the Presidential Palace. The first president to live there was John Adams, the second president of the US, and his wife Mrs.Adams did not really like her new house. In her letters, she often complained about the cold. Fifty fireplaces were not enough to keep the house warm! Thomas Jefferson, the third president, improved the comfort of the White House in many respects and added new architectural features such as the terraces on the east and west ends.

In 1812 the United States and Britain went to war. In 1814 the British invaded Washington. They burnt many buildings, including the Presidential Palace.

After the war James Hoban partially rebuilt the president’s home. To cover the marks of the fire, the building was painted white. Before long it became known as the White House.

The White House is one of the most popular tourist attractions in the United States. Every year more than 1,5 million visitors go through the five rooms that are open to the public.

B – Washington, D.C.

B — The White House

B — The United States

B – The US Presidents

№3.2.2.

Формулировка ТЗ. Определите, какое предложение соответствует содержанию текста.

B — The White House is one of the most popular tourist attractions in the United States.

B — The White House is one of the most popular trade offices in the United States.

B — In 1804 the British invaded Washington.

B — In 1814 the British invaded New York.

№3.2.3.

Формулировка ТЗ. Продолжите предложение согласно тексту «Originally the White House was grey and was called ……..». (запишите три слова). 

B — the Presidential Palace

№3.2.4.

Формулировка ТЗ. Найдите в тексте ответ на вопрос «When did the United States and Britain go to war?» и запишите его (числительное записать цифрами). 

B — 1812

№3.2.5.

Формулировка ТЗ. Используйте глагол в нужной форме в соответствии с содержанием текста.

After the war James Hoban partially ____ (to rebuild) the president’s home.

B — rebuilt

№3.2.6.

Формулировка ТЗ. Постройте специальный вопрос к выделенным словам.

President Washington never lived in the Presidential Palace.

Who never lived in the Presidential Palace?

№3.2.7.

Формулировка ТЗ. Определите значение слова contest в тексте и впишите его.

B — конкурс

№3.3.1.

Формулировка ТЗ. Выберите название для текста

Political parties first emerged in Britain at the end of the 17th century. The Conservative and Liberal Parties are the oldest and until the end of the 19th century they were the only parties in the House of Commons.

The Conservative Party, often called the Tory Party, is one of those, which can trace its roots back to this early period. Today the Tory Party is that of big business, industry, commerce and landowners. Most of the money needed to run the party comes from large firms and companies. The party represents those who believe in private enterprise as opposed tо state-owned undertakings. There is some division within the party itself: the more aristocratic wind and the lower-middle class group. The Conservative Party is the most powerful and is often called a party of business directors.

The word “Tory” means the Irish highwayman and was applied to the conservatives by their opponents but later they adopted the name to describe themselves. The Tories opposed the ideas of the French Revolution, Parliamentary Reform and the development of Trade Unionism. In home policy they opposed the tendencies of the Labour Party to nationalize gas, electricity, coal and the railways. Today the Conservative Party can broadly be described as the party of the middle and upper classes.

In the middle of the 19th century the Liberal Party represented the trading and manufacturing classes. Its slogan at that time was “Civil and Religious Liberty”. During the second half of the 19th century many working people looked at the Liberal Party as an alternative to the Conservatives and their policy.

The Conservative Party and the Liberal Party are more than three hundred years old.

B – The Liberal Party

B – The Democratic Party

B — Political Parties

B – The Conservative Party

№3.3.2.

Формулировка ТЗ. Определите, какое предложение соответствует содержанию текста.

B — The Conservative Party and the Liberal Party are more than five hundred years old.

B — The Conservative Party and the Liberal Party are more than three hundred years old.

B — The Liberal Party isoften called the Tory Party.

B – The Democratic Party is the most powerful and is often called a party of business directors.

№3.3.3.

Формулировка ТЗ. Продолжите предложение согласно тексту «The Conservative Party is the most powerful and is often called a party of ….»(запишите два слова). 

В- business directors

№3.3.4.

Формулировка ТЗ. Найдите в тексте ответ на вопрос «How old are the Conservative and the Liberal parties?» и запишите его (числительное записать цифрами). 

B- 300

№3.3.5.

Формулировка ТЗ. Используйте глагол в нужной форме в соответствии с содержанием текста.

In the middle of the 19th century the Liberal Party ______ (to represent) the trading and manufacturing classes.

B — represented

№3.3.6.

Формулировка ТЗ. Постройте специальный вопрос к выделенным словам.Political parties first emerged in Britain at the end of the 17th century.

When did political parties first emerge in Britain?

№3.3.7.

Формулировка ТЗ. Определите значение слова landowners в тексте и впишите его.

В- землевладельцы

Экономика зарубежных стран

№3.4.1.

Формулировка ТЗ. Выберите название для текста

Most businesses in the United Kingdom operate in one of the following ways;

sole trader

partnership

limited liability company

branch of a foreign company

The sole trader is the oldest form of business. There are many one-man owners, for example; a farmer, doctor, solicitor, estate agent, garage man, jobber, builder, hairdresser, etc.

The partnership is a firm where there are a few partners. They are firms of solicitors, architects, auditors, management consultants, etc. The names of all the partners of the firm are printed on the stationary of a partnership

The most common type of company in the United Kingdom is the limited liability company.

At the end of the name of such a company the word Ltd is used. For example; Wilson and Son Ltd.

Many of such companies are joint-stock companies owned by shareholders.

Limited liability companies are divided into public and private ones. Only public companies may offer shares to the public at stock exchange. The names of such companies end in p.l.c. which stands for public limited company. For instance; John and Michael p.l.c.

Private limited companies may not offer shares to the public. The names of such companies end simply in Ltd.

A branch of a foreign company is a part of a company incorporated outside Great Britain but acting under the law of the UK. Usually these companies act in the UK under their normal foreign names.

B — Types of businesses in the UK

B – Companies of the UK

B – Private companies in the UK

B – The sole trader

№3.4.2.

Формулировка ТЗ. Определите, какое предложение соответствует содержанию текста.

B — Private limited companies may offer shares to the public.

B — Limited liability companies are divided into public ones only.

B — The partnership is a firm where there is one partner.

B — The most common type of company in the United Kingdom is the limited liability company.

№3.4.3.

Формулировка ТЗ. Продолжите предложение согласно тексту «Most of the joint-stock companies are owned by …» (запишите одно слово)

B — shareholders

№3.4.4.

Формулировка ТЗ. Найдите в тексте ответ на вопрос «What abbreviation is used for the limited liability company?»

B — Ltd

№3.4.5.

Формулировка ТЗ. Используйте глагол в нужной форме в соответствии с содержанием текста.

The partnership …. (to be) a firm where there are a few partners.

B — is

№3.4.6.

Формулировка ТЗ. Постройте специальный вопрос к выделенным словам.

The most common type of company in the United Kingdom is the limited liability company.

B — What is the most common type of company in the United Kingdom?

№3.4.7.

Формулировка ТЗ. Определите значение слова private в тексте и впишите его.

B — частный

№3.5.1.

Формулировка ТЗ. Выберите название для текста

A large amount of international trade is carried out not by direct contact between a buyer and a seller, but by agencies, which are usually placed in the country of the buyer.

Large enterprises are able to establish a manufacturing subsidiary or sales company in the foreign country they sell to. That is why a great volume of business is handled by the agencies.



A forwarding agency organizes the collection, carriage and delivery of goods between ports and the premises of merchants and manufacturers in return for a fee. Nowadays there is a great tendency for forwarding agents to extend their activities into the fields of transport, financing, insurance, and even buying on their own account.

Trade agents from a trade agency can be either selling or buying agents and act on behalf and instructions of their principals. They make up a contract or an agreement with the principal and receive payment for their services under this contract. Another type of mercantile agents are brokers who are considered to be trade agents with higher degree of independent authority. Brokers often deal with commodities such as fruit, agricultural product and raw material, which prices are subjected to sudden changes.

Commission agents buy and sell in their own names, on the best terms available, on behalf of foreign buyers and sellers. This type of agency charges a commission for their work.

The correspondence between the agencies and their clients may be connected either with the routine side of the work of the agencies or with some particular problems: terms of operation, competition, supplies and so forth.

B — types of agencies and correspondence

B — agencies and clients

B – brokers and commission agents

B – international trade

№3.5.2.

Формулировка ТЗ. Определите, какое предложение соответствует содержанию текста.

B — A forwarding agency organizes the collection, carriage and delivery of goods between ports and the premises of merchants and manufacturers in return for a fee.

B — A manufacturing company organizes the collection, carriage and delivery of goods between ports and the premises of merchants and manufacturers in return for a fee.

B — Commission agents don’t buy and sell in their own names, on the best terms available, on behalf of foreign buyers and sellers.

B — Customers buy and sell in their own names, on the best terms available, on behalf of foreign buyers and sellers.

№3.5.3.

Формулировка ТЗ. Продолжите предложение согласно тексту « Brokers often deal with commodities such as …….. which prices are subjected to sudden changes». (запишите шесть слов) 

B — fruit, agricultural product and raw material

№3.5.4.

Формулировка ТЗ. Найдите в тексте ответ на вопрос «What do commission agents charge for their work?» и запишите его.

B — a commission 

№3.5.5.

Формулировка ТЗ. Используйте глагол в нужной форме в соответствии с содержанием текста.

Large enterprises ______ ( to be able to) establish a manufacturing subsidiary or sales company in the foreign country they sell to.

B — are able to

№3.5.6.

Формулировка ТЗ. Постройте специальный вопрос к выделенным словам.

A forwarding agency organizes the collection, carriage and delivery of goods between ports and the premises of merchants and manufacturers in return for a fee.

Who organizes the collection, carriage and delivery of goods between ports and the premises of merchants and manufacturers in return for a fee?

№3.5.7.

Формулировка ТЗ. Определите значение слова an agreement в тексте и впишите его.

B — соглашение

Маркетинг

№3.6.1.

Формулировка ТЗ. Выберите предложение, которое отражает главную идею текста.

Marketing’s principal function is to promote and facilitate exchange. Through marketing, individuals and groups obtain what they need and want by exchanging products and services with other parties. Such a process can occur only when there are at least two parties, each of whom has something to offer. In addition, exchange cannot occur unless the parties are able to communicate about and to deliver what they offer. All parties must be free to accept or reject what others are offering. Marketing is not confined to any particular type of economy. Furthermore, marketing is not a function that is limited to profit-oriented business; even such institutions as hospitals, schools, and museums engage in some forms of marketing. Within the broad scope of marketing, merchandising is concerned more specifically with promoting the sale of goods and services to consumers (i.e., retailing) and hence is more characteristic of free-market economies.

Based on these criteria, marketing can take a variety of forms: it can be a set of functions, a department within an organization, a managerial process, a managerial philosophy, and a social process.



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